Probabilistic modeling is one of the most widely used approaches to machine learning (ML). In recent years, the number and variety of probabilistic models has increased dramatically. Currently, developing a new probabilistic model requires developing a new representation and reasoning and learning algorithms. This is expensive and requires much expertise. Probabilistic programming (PP) is designed to make development of probabilistic ML applications less expensive and easier for non-experts. A PP language provides the tools to represent complex models using the power of programming languages and provide reasoning and learning algorithms that work automatically for any model written in the language. The development of PP languages has been inspired by functional programming. Just as an expression in a function programming language defines a computation that produces a value, an expression in a functional PP language defines an expression that stochastically produces a value by sampling the program. The purpose of PP, however, is not just to produce stochastic values, but to reason about the probability distribution over values produced by the program, for example, to predict the value of one variable given another. In this talk, I will describe PP through two functional PP languages I have developed. The first language, IBAL, was the first general-purpose PP language. Implemented in OCaml, it showed how probabilistic reasoning could be performed with algebraic data types and higher-order functions. Our more recent language, Figaro, is an embedded library in Scala. The main concept behind Figaro is that a Scala program is used to construct a Figaro data structure that represents a functional probabilistic program. This enables creation, manipulation, and integration of probabilistic programs in a way that was not previously feasible. I will describe the process of transition from IBAL to Figaro and the gradual understanding of what Figaro is.
Dr. Avi Pfeffer is a Principal Scientist at Charles River Analytics. Dr. Pfeffer is a leading researcher on a variety of computational intelligence techniques including probabilistic reasoning, machine learning, and computational game theory. Dr. Pfeffer has developed a number of probabilistic representation and reasoning frameworks, such as probabilistic programming, which enables the development of probabilistic models using the full power of programming languages, and statistical relational learning, which provides the ability to combine probabilistic and relational reasoning. He is the lead developer of Charles River Analytics‚Äô Figaro probabilistic programming language. As an Associate Professor at Harvard, he developed IBAL, the first general-purpose probabilistic programming language. While at Harvard, he also produced systems for representing, reasoning about, and learning the beliefs, preferences, and decision making strategies of people in strategic situations. Prior to joining Harvard, he developed object-oriented Bayesian networks and probabilistic relational models, which form the foundation of the field of statistical relational learning. Dr. Pfeffer serves as Action Editor of the Journal of Machine Learning Research and served as Associate Editor of Artificial Intelligence Journal and as Program Chair of the Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence. Dr. Pfeffer received his Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University and his B.A. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley.